There is a typical progression when learning to home brew beer. Extract brewing is the best way to get started. Partial mash, the next step, is a hybrid between extract and all-grain. It allows you to add variations to the beer affecting flavor, color and mouthfeel. All-Grain brewing is the ultimate way to brew, allowing you to manage the flavors and colors at every step of the process. The evolution of each home brewer is different. Some folks never go beyond straight extract brewing... and that is just fine. Those who enjoy the science of it and want total control of the process may do just a handful of batches before moving to all grain brewing. The major difference in these three brewing styles is the amount of control you desire as well as the time you want to invest and the equipment you will need. The following will briefly describe each type of brewing.


Extract brewing is the form of brewing used by most new brewers. Extract brewing involves the use of concentrated Malt Extract in the brewing process. The use of malt extract lets the brewer skip the mashing process, ...and move directly to the boil and fermentation steps. Extract brewing takes considerably less time and equipment than All Grain brewing. You can make very high quality beer using extract brewing, but it does not offer the full range of ingredient and process variations that are possible with All Grain brewing.

The extract brew process includes the following steps:

  • Water is added to a brew pot and heated Liquid malt extract and/or dry extract is added to the water to make 'wort' about 3 gallons for a 5 gallon batch
  • The wort is boiled for about 1 hour
  • At various points during the boil Hops are added (the intricacies of hop additions is a subject for a later discussion)
  • The wort is then poured into a fermenter and cold water is added to bring the volume up to the desired level
  • The wort is cooled to room temperature as quickly as possible
  • Yeast is added, and the beer ferments for 7-14 days
  • Priming sugar is added to the finished beer and it is bottled, kegging does not require sugar instead the beer is 'force carbonated'

Partial Mash

There's not a whole lot to be said here. Partial mash consists of steeping specialty grains into an extract beer before going to boil. You'll start by mixing the liquid malt extract or dry malt extract with water ...but instead of bringing it directly to a boil the wort mixture will be heated to approximately 160 degrees and held there for around 30 minutes while the grains soak. The best way to do this is with the use of a grain bag sometimes called a sock. These bags are made of nylon or muslin and may have a drawstring closure. It is important to not steep too hot (over 168 degrees) or too long (over an hour) either of these errors will release astringent tannin compounds into your beer.
Steeping grains in this manner is done to achieve one or more of three possible variations to your beer. 1) Affect flavor. 2) Affect color. 3) Affect mouthfeel. In either case the best way to start off your beer is with pre-packaged beer 'kit'. The kit will have all the ingredients you need to make the specified type of beer intended (extract, hops, yeast) and then you can customize and make the beer more your own using this steeping method.

All-Grain Brewing

After you have some experience with Extract and Partial-Mash Brewing, you may want to make the move to All Grain. The All Grain brewing process does take a bit longer due to the additional steps involved; these ...include weighing and grinding of the grains, mashing and sparging (described below). In addition there is additional equipment involved most notably a Mash Tun and a larger brew kettle. All grain brewing offers a much greater degree of control over the ingredients used and the specific nature of the final beer produced.
All Grain brewing starts with deciding on a recipe, what types of grains will be used and in what proportions. Once weighed out, the grain must be ground or crushed. You can purchase your own grain mill or grains can be purchased pre-ground. The Mashing process is next. All of your crushed grains are placed in your Mash Tun. Hot water is then added to the mash tun to raise the temperature of the mixture to between 148F and 158F. The specific temperature within this range affects your beer's final qualities and is a topic for another discussion. Leave the mash for 45-90 minutes. During this time, complex sugars are broken down into simple sugars that yeast can easily consume.
In the next step, called Sparging, hot water is added to the top of your mash tun and drained through the false bottom into your brew kettle. It takes time to extract the sugars from the grains, so don't rush this process. Allow at least 20-30 minutes to fully sparge the Mash Tun and extract about 6 to 7 gallons of wort for a 5 gallon batch. Once you have the hot wort extracted, the rest of the process of boiling, cooling and fermenting the wort is pretty much the same as it would be for an extract brew. Except that you are boiling the full volume of wort not just 3 gallons wort then adding water to bring it up to the final volume as is done in extract brewing.
This is a simplification of the process just to give you an overview. All Grain brewing requires greater attention to the water that you use (especially it's PH) and temperature control (among other things) but these are topics for future discussion.

Homebrew Terminology

ABV: Alcohol by volume, the common method of measuring alcohol content in beer.

Airlock: Placed on top of the fermenter to let CO2 out while not allowing contaminates in.

Adjunct: Fermentable material used as a substitute or in addition to traditional grains, to affect various properties of the beer.

Ale: Family of beer that ferments at warmer temperatures, also called warm-fermenting or top fermenting because of the action of ale yeast attenuation.

Aroma Hops: Varieties of hop chosen to impart bouquet.

Attenuation: Extent to which yeast consumes fermentable sugars converting them into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Barley: Two-row and six-row refer to the number of kernel rows in the head of the stalk, two-row is the more commonly used, whereas six-row is employed when extra amylase enzymes are required to convert other grains.

Body: Thickness and mouth-filling property of a beer described as full or thin bodied.

Bottle Conditioning: Secondary fermentation and maturation in the bottle, creating complex aromas and flavors.

Bottom-Fermenting Yeast: One of the two types of yeast used in brewing. Bottom-fermenting yeast works well at low temperatures and ferments more sugars leaving a crisp, clean taste and then settles to the bottom of the tank. Also referred to as lager yeast.

Brew Kettle: The vessel in which wort from the mash is boiled with hops.

Bung: The stopper in the hole in a keg or cask through which the keg or cask is filled and emptied. The hole may also be referred to as a bung or bunghole. Real beer must use a wooden bung.

Caramel Malt: A sweet, coppery-colored malt. Caramel or crystal malt imparts both color and flavor to beer. Caramel malt has a high concentration of unfermentable sugars that sweeten the beer and, contribute to head retention.

Carboy: Five gallon jug used to ferment and age beer.

Corn Sugar: The most common type of sugar used during bottling to carbonate beer.

Chill Haze: Cloudiness caused by precipitation of protein-tannin compound at low temperatures, does not affect flavor.

Decoction: A traditional German procedure where a portion of the mash is heated to boiling separately and returned to the main mash to raise the whole wort through ideal enzymatic ranges.

Diacetyl: A volatile compound in beer that contributes to a butterscotch flavor, measured in parts per million.

Dry Hopping: The addition of dry hops to fermenting or aging beer to increase its hop character or aroma.

Fermentation: The process by which yeast metabolizes simple sugars into alcohol.
Grain Bag: A mesh bag used to hold grains during steeping.

Grist: Crushed or milled grain before it is mixed with hot water to form a mash.

Hops: the cone-shaped flowers of the vine Humulus lupulus, used to give beer its bitterness, flavor and aroma, and as a preserving agent.

Hop Bag: A mesh bag used to hold hops mainly during secondary fermentation.

Hydrometer: An instrument that measures the specific gravity of a liquid; in the case of brewing, it enables brewers to measure original gravity and final gravity to determine ABV.

IBU's (International Bittering Units): A measure of the beer's bitterness generated by hop additions at various stages of the boil.

Iodophore: An iodine solution used in sterilization.

Lactobacillus: An anaerobic bacteria that produces sour notes in a beer, generally undesirable except in a few styles, such as Lambic.

Lager: Family of beer that ferments at cooler temperatures, also called cold-fermenting or bottom fermenting because of the action of ale yeast.

Lagering: From the German word for storage. Refers to maturation for several weeks or months at cold temperatures to settle residual yeast, impart carbonation and make for clean round flavors.

Malt: Grain that is allowed to germinate, with the process stopped by heat. The amount and duration of the heat determines the color and other qualities of the malt, which govern the color of the beer and many flavor components.

Mash: A mixture of grain and water used to produce fermentable liquid.

Mashing: The process by which a mash undergoes enzymatic changes to create wort by breaking down proteins and converting starch into fermentable sugars.

Mash Tun: A tank where grist is soaked in water and heated in order to convert the starch to sugar and extract the sugars and other solubles from the grist.

Mouthfeel: A sensation derived from the consistency or viscosity of a beer, described, for example as thin or full.

Pitch: To add yeast to wort.

Priming Sugar: Sugar added during bottling to carbonate the beverage.

Racking: Transferring a fermented liquid from one container to another by siphoning.

Runnings: The liquid collected from the mash usually an initial and a sparge.

Sanitize: Elimination of unwanted bacteria from the surface of brewing equipment.

Secondary Fermentation: The second step in the fermentation process; additional clarification takes place when fermenting beer is racked from it's primary fermenter.

Sparge: The process where hot water is poured or sprinkled over the grain tp rinse remaining sugars after the initial running.

Specific Gravity: The measure of density of a liquid.

A) Original Gravity (OG): Specific gravity of the wort before fermentation takes place.
B) Final Gravity (FG): Specific gravity of a beer when fermentation is complete.

Stuck fermentation: A state where fermentation has stopped before the yeast has consumed all of its sugars.

Top Fermenting Yeast: A style of yeast that works at warm temperatures and floats to the top of the beer. Ale yeasts are responsible for the creation of most beers other than lagers.

Wort: The solution of grain sugars strained from the mash tun.

Yeast: The micro-organism that converts sugar into alcohol.

Zymurgy: the science of beer making beer.

Hops are used for four main reasons in brewing:

The bitterness of the hop balances with the sweetness of the malt. Bitterness is achieved by boiling the hops in the wort at least 30 minutes but preferably for 45 to 60.

Inducing the flavor of the hops into the beer is achieved by boiling the hops in the wort for 10 to 15 minutes.

The aroma of the hops is absorbed into the beer by boiling the hops with the wort for 5 minutes or less, or by “dry hopping”, which is the practice of adding the hops to the secondary fermenter for 4 to 7 days.

Hops are a natural preservative and help stabalize a beer’s aging ability.

You don't achieve all three characteristics by one addition of hops to the wort. However, with the addition of hops at the proper times in the boiling process, one can achieve all three characteristics even from the same hop variety. Lower alpha rated hop varieties do not function well as bittering agents, while higher alpha rated hops may not make good finishing or aromatic hops.


This is an extensive although not complete guide to hop varieties. New hops are constantly being developed and we will try to update and maintain this list as new strains become commercially available.

Admiral (UK)
Alpha Acids: 13.5 - 16%
Characteristics: Bred as a replacement for Target with a less harsh bitterness. Weak aroma with mild citrus character.
Substitutes: Target, Challenger

Ahtanum (US)
Alpha Acids: 5.7 - 6.3%
Characteristics: Citrus and floral character, with grapefruit qualities said to be stronger than in Cascade. Ahtanum may also feature resiny or earth notes.
Substitutes: Cascade, Amarillo

Amarillo (US) Buy Amarillo Hops
Alpha Acids: 8 - 11%
Characteristics: Floral, grapefruit, citrus, peach.
Substitutes: Cascade, Centennial, Citra

Apollo (US)
Alpha Acids: 18 - 22%
Characteristics: Orange, with some resin. Dank.
Substitutes: Summit

Aramis (US)
Alpha Acids: 8%
Characteristics: Herbal, floral, earthy, lemon.
Substitutes: NONE

Aurora (Slovenia)
Alpha Acids: 7 - 9%
Characteristics: General "hoppy" aroma, fruity.
Substitutes: Styrian Golding, Premiant, Northern Brewer

Belma (US)
Alpha Acids: 12%
Characteristics: Clean fruity hoppiness; strawberry, melon, mild citrus.
Substitutes: Pacific Gem

Bramling Cross (UK)
Alpha Acids: 7 - 10%
Characteristics: Strong and spicy English hop. Fruity blackcurrant and lemon citrus.
Substitutes: East Kent Goldings, Progress, Brewer's Gold

Bravo (US)
Alpha Acids: 14 - 17%
Characteristics: Smooth, mild flavor; fruity, floral. Clean bittering.
Substitutes: Warrior

Brewer's Gold (UK)
Alpha Acids: 5 - 8%
Characteristics: Early bittering hop. Resiny, spicy. Black currant aroma.
Substitutes: Bullion, Galena, Bramling Cross

Bullion (US)
Alpha Acids: 7 - 9%
Characteristics: Early, traditional bittering hop for stouts. Resiny, earthy; pungent black currant or raspberry aroma.
Substitutes: Brewer's Gold, Galena

Calypso (US)
Alpha Acids: 12-14%
Characteristics: Lemony aroma, tart apple, earthy tea.
Substitutes: none

Cascade (US) Buy Cascade Hops
Alpha Acids: 4.5 - 7.0%
Characteristics: Ubiquitous American hop; citrusy grapefruit character.
Substitutes: Centennial

Centennial (US) Buy Centenial Hops
Alpha Acids: 9 - 12%
Characteristics: Balanced fruity citrus / stone-fruit character. Smooth bitterness.
Substitutes: Cascade, Citra

Challenger (UK)
Alpha Acids: 6 - 9 %
Characteristics: Clean bittering hop with strong, spicy aroma.
Substitutes: Perle, Target, Phoenix, EKG

Chinook (US) Chinook Hops
Alpha Acids: 11 - 14%
Characteristics: Spicy, piney flavor with some grapefruit.
Substitutes: Nugget, Columbus, Northern Brewer

Citra (US) Buy Citra Hops
Alpha Acids: 10 - 12%
Characteristics: Potent aroma of intense mango, tropical fruit and citrus. Flavor is a bit smoother, less specific but still intense. Extremely effective as a dry hop and late addition hop.
Substitutes: Galaxy, Centennial, Nelson Sauvin

Cluster (US) Buy Cluster Hops
Alpha Acids: 5.5 - 8.5%
Characteristics: Pungent bittering hop; spicy, floral aroma. One of the original American hops.
Substitutes: Galena, Northern Brewer

Columbus (US) Buy Columbus Hops
Alpha Acids: 14 - 16%
Characteristics: Dank, earthy, resin.
Substitutes: Chinook, Nugget

Comet (US)
Alpha Acids: 9 - 11%
Characteristics: Intense wild American grapefruit / citrus character; extremely dank.
Substitutes: Summit

Crystal (US)
Alpha Acids: 2 - 5%
Characteristics: American grown Hallertau hybrid. Flowery, spicy aroma. Sister hop to Mount Hood and Liberty.
Substitutes: Mt. Hood, Hersbrucker, Liberty, Hallertau

Dana (Slovenia)
Alpha Acids: 11 - 16%
Characteristics: A psuedo-Noble hop with a rustic, musty spiciness and mild bitterness.
Substitutes: NONE

Delta (US)
Alpha Acids: 5.5 - 7%
Characteristics: Slightly spicy with a hint of citrus. (Delta is a cross between Fuggles and Cascade). Described as subtle and mild.
Substitutes: NONE

East Kent Goldings (UK)
Alpha Acids: 4.5 - 6.5%
Characteristics: A popular, traditional English hop with gentle fragrant aroma. Smooth, spicy and floral. Has defined English ales for centuries.
Substitutes: Fuggle, First Gold, Williamette

El Dorado (US)
Alpha Acids: 14 - 16%
Characteristics: An intense, candy-like aroma of cherry, pear and fruit. Can taste like cherry Jolly Ranchers in extra-hoppy beers.
Substitutes: Sounds pretty unique, sorry folks

Falconers Flight (US)
Alpha Acids: 10.5%
Characteristics: Tropical, citrus, floral, lemon and grapefruit.
Substitutes: Cascade, Ahtanum, Sorachi Ace

Falconers Seven Seas (US)
Alpha Acids: 9 - 10%
Characteristics: Fruity, citrus, spicy, earthy. A cross-breed of 7 "C" variety hops. (Get it?)
Substitutes: Simcoe

First Gold (UK)
Alpha Acids: 6 - 9%
Characteristics: A child hybrid of Goldings, similar in aroma; spicy. Woody, minty flavor and aroma.
Substitutes: Eat Kent Goldings, Fuggle, Crystal

Fuggle (UK) Buy Fuggle Hops
Alpha Acids: 4 - 6%
Characteristics: Woody, earthy. Mildly spicy.
Substitutes: Williamette, Styrian Goldings

Galaxy (AUS)
Alpha Acids: 13 - 15%
Characteristics: Tropical passionfruit, citrus hints of peach, mango. Similar to Citra but more fruity, less dank.
Substitutes: Citra, Amarillo, Centennial

Galena (UK)
Alpha Acids: 11 - 14%
Characteristics: Fruity black currant; citrus.
Substitutes: Legacy, Brewer's Gold, Nugget

Glacier (US)
Alpha Acids: 5 - 6%
Characteristics: Earthy/floral character with a sweet citrus.
Substitutes: Williamette, Styrian Goldings

Green Bullet (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 10 - 14%
Characteristics: Fruity, resiny; described as having a distinct raisin-like character.
Substitutes: Possibly Galena

Hallertau (GER) Buy German Hallertau Hops
Alpha Acids: 3.5 - 5.5%
Characteristics: Versatile, classic hop with mild spicy, flowery, earthy aroma. "Noble" hop common to German lagers
Substitutes: Hersbruck, Mt. Hood, Liberty, Helga

Hallertau Aroma (Wakatu) (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 7 - 9%
Characteristics: Less spicy than Mittelfrüh, with a floral and citrus / lime character.
Substitutes: NONE

Hallertau Blanc (GER)
Alpha Acids: 9 - 12%
Characteristics: Flowery-fruity aroma, passion fruit, grapefruit, gooseberry and pineapple.
Substitutes: Sounds like it could be the German response to Galaxy / Nelson Sauvin?

Hallertau Mittelfrüh (GER)
Alpha Acids: 3.5%
Characteristics: Versatile, classic hop with mild spicy, flowery, earthy aroma. "Noble" hop common to German lagers. Most likely a regional subset of Hallertau hops.
Substitutes: Hersbruck, Mt. Hood, Liberty, Helga

Hallertauer (US) Buy Hallertauer Hops
Alpha Acids: 3.5 - 5.5%
Characteristics: Mild and pleasant, yet spicy and with herbal and floral characteristics.
Substitutes: German Hallertau, Liberty, Mt. Hood

Helga (AUS)
Alpha Acids: 5 - 6.3%
Characteristics: Noble-ish aroma, flowery, mild.
Substitutes: Hallertau Mittelfrueh, Hersbrucker

Herald (UK)
Alpha Acids: 9 - 13%
Characteristics: A sister of Pioneer; strong bitterness with citrus and grapefruit.
Substitutes: Pioneer

Herkules (GER)
Alpha Acids: 12 - 17%
Characteristics: Slightly fruity, spicy aroma.
Substitutes: Horizon, Magnum, (Hallertau) Taurus

(Hallertau) Hersbrucker (GER)
Alpha Acids: 2 - 5%
Characteristics: Moderate-intensity floral character, spice and fruit.
Substitutes: Hallertau, Helga

Horizon (US)
Alpha Acids: 10 - 16%
Characteristics: Citrus and floral, fragrant aroma. Possibly some spice / resin. Clean bittering.
Substitutes: Magnum, Amarillo

Hüll Melon (GER)
Alpha Acids: 6.9 - 7.5%
Characteristics: Strawberry and honeydew, melon nuances.
Substitutes: NONE

Kohatu (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 6 - 7%
Characteristics: Intense floral characters, grapefruit, pine needles, tropical fruit.
Substitutes: NONE

Legacy (US)
Alpha Acids: ~7 - 8%
Characteristics: Floral, blackcurrant, spicy.
Substitutes: Cluster, Galena

Liberty (US)
Alpha Acids: 3 - 6%
Characteristics: Mild, slightly spicy, resiny. Sometimes considered a noble hop.
Substitutes: Hallertau

Marynka (Poland)
Alpha Acids: 7 - 10%
Characteristics: Earthy, rooty, liquorice.
Substitutes: Perle, Chinook

Magnum (US) Buy Magnum hOPS
Alpha Acids: 10 - 14%
Characteristics: Very clean bittering with mild, faint aroma.
Substitutes: Horizon, Columbus, German Magnum, Nugget

Mandarina Bavaria (GER)
Alpha Acids: 7 - 10%
Characteristics: Intense mandarin, citrus notes.
Substitutes: NONE

Meridian (US)
Alpha Acids: 6 - 7%
Characteristics: Citrus, lemon, with some tropical fruit and floral characteristics.
Substitutes: Citra, Amarillo, Sorachi Ace.. ?

Merkur (GER)
Alpha Acids: 12 - 15%
Characteristics: Similar to Magnum for bittering, but with an earthy, floral aroma.
Substitutes: Magnum, Horizon

Millennium (US)
Alpha Acids: 13 - 16%
Characteristics: Clean bittering, with herbal aroma.
Substitutes: Nugget

Mosaic (US)
Alpha Acids: 10 - 12%
Characteristics: Mango, stone fruit, berry medley, melon. Mild herbal character.
Substitutes: Possibly a blend of Galaxy and Nelson Sauvin

Motueka (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 6.5 -7.5%
Characteristics: Lemony, tropical fruit, spice.
Substitutes: Saaz

Mount Hood (US)
Alpha Acids: 5 - 8%
Characteristics: Mild and clean aroma and flavor.
Substitutes: Hallertauer, Tettnanger

Mount Rainier (US)
Alpha Acids: 5 - 8%
Characteristics: Hallertauer with higher AA; aroma of citrus and licorice.
Substitutes: Hallertauer, Fuggles

Nelson Sauvin (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 11 - 13%

Characteristics: White wine, grapefruit, tangy berries. Dank and intensely fruity.
Substitutes: Extremely unique, no subs.

Newport (US)
Alpha Acids: 12 - 15%
Characteristics: Mild aroma; good bittering.
Substitutes: Magnum

Northdown (UK)
Alpha Acids: 6 - 10%
Characteristics: Clean bitterness and a distinct woody, minty flavor.
Substitutes: Northern Brewer

Northern Brewer (US) Northern Brewer Hops
Alpha Acids: 8 - 10%
Characteristics: Woody, herbaceous, and peppery.
Substitutes: Northdown, Perle, Aurora

Nugget (US)
Alpha Acids: 10 - 14%
Characteristics: Somewhat heavy, herbal bitterness and aroma.
Substitutes: Galena, Columbus

Opal (GER)
Alpha Acids: 8 - 10%
Characteristics: Moderate bitterness, spicy, fruity, floral.
Substitutes: Saphir, East Kent Goldings

Pacific Gem (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 13 - 16%
Characteristics: Clean bitterness; soft flavor with notes of strawberry, blackberry, berry medley. Tangy citrus, melon, tangerine.
Substitutes: Belma

Pacifica (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 5 -6%
Characteristics: Orange marmalade flavor, with some citrus and floral character as well.
Substitutes: Possibly a combination of Mittlefruh and Amarillo.

Pacific Jade (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 12 - 14%
Characteristics: Soft bitterness. Bold aroma of citrus and crushed black pepper.
Substitutes: Magnum

Palisade (US)
Alpha Acids: 5.5 - 9.5%
Characteristics: Fruity but non-citrusy aroma; earthy undertones.
Substitutes: Willamette

Perle (GER)
Alpha Acids: 6 - 8%
Characteristics: Spicy, minty aroma of moderate intensity and balanced bittering.
Substitutes: Northern Brewer, Northdown

Phoenix (UK)
Alpha Acids: 7 - 11%
Characteristics: Spicy "English Ale" aroma with clean bittering.
Substitutes: Challenger, Northern Brewer

Pilgrim (UK)
Alpha Acids: 9 - 13%
Characteristics: Spicy earthy character.
Substitutes: Target

Pioneer (UK)
Alpha Acids: 8 - 10%
Characteristics: Citrus
Substitutes: EKG

Polaris (GER)
Alpha Acids: 19 - 23%
Characteristics: Minty.
Substitutes: NONE

Premiant (Czech Republic)
Alpha Acids: 7 - 10%
Characteristics: Mild, pleasant aroma.
Substitutes: Styrian Goldings, perhaps Saaz and Aurora

Pride of Ringwood (AUS)
Alpha Acids: 9 - 10.5%
Characteristics: Unique, intense aroma describe as "coarse," citrusy, herbal. .
Substitutes: Cluster, Galena

Progress (UK)
Alpha Acids: 5 - 7%
Characteristics: Mildly spicy or woody, hint of juniper, similar to Fuggle but slightly sweeter.
Substitutes: Fuggle

Rakau (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 9 - 11%
Characteristics: Grassy and spicy upfront, with some peach and tangerine in the finish.
Substitutes: NONE

Riwaka (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 5 - 7%
Characteristics: Strong grapefruit citrus character.
Substitutes: Cascade

Saaz (Czech Republic) Buy Czech Saaz Hops
Alpha Acids: 3 - 5%
Characteristics: Soft aroma and bitterness, maybe the quintessential "spicy" hop. Noble hop traditionally used for pilsners.
Substitutes: Sterling, Spalt

San Juan Ruby Red (US)
Alpha Acids: 7%
Characteristics: Wild growing hop discovered in CO. Fruity, slightly sweet.
Substitutes: none

Santiam (US)
Alpha Acids: 5 - 7%
Characteristics: Similar to Tettnanger. Herbal, floral.
Substitutes: Tettnanger

Saphir (GER)
Alpha Acids: 3 - 5.5%
Characteristics: Sweet, clean, spicy; citrusy with an almost tangerine aroma.
Substitutes: Hallertau

Satus (US)
Alpha Acids: 12.5 - 14.0%
Characteristics: Similar to Galena.
Substitutes: Galena

Select (GER)
Alpha Acids: 4 - 6%
Characteristics: Bred to be similar to Spalt, Tettnang, Saaz.
Substitutes: Spalt, Tettnang, Saaz

Serebrianka (Russia)
Alpha Acids: 3.5%
Characteristics: Light perfume aroma.

Simcoe (US) Buy Simcoe Hops
Alpha Acids: 11 - 14%
Characteristics: Pine and citrus, sweet berries and perfume. Unique, complex flavor with very smooth bittering.
Substitutes: A combination of Columbus and Centennial might come close.

Smaragd (GER)
Alpha Acids: 4 - 6%
Characteristics: Fruity nose, flowery; more prominent aroma than most European varieties; balanced subdued fruitiness.
Substitutes: Try a combo of German and American hops

Sonnet Golding (US)
Alpha Acids: 6.6%
Characteristics: Similar characteristics to Golding hops.

Sorachi Ace (Japan) Buy Sorachi Ace Hops
Alpha Acids: 12 - 16%
Characteristics: Lemony, Lemongrass, lemon-cream flavor.
Substitutes: Southern Cross

Southern Cross (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 11 - 14%
Characteristics: Lemon, lime, pine.
Substitutes: Sorachi Ace

Sovereign (UK)
Alpha Acids: 4 - 7%
Characteristics: Earthy, nutty, pine.
Substitutes: Fuggle

Spalt (GER)
Alpha Acids: 3.5 - 5%
Characteristics: Spicy, Noble hop aroma.
Substitutes: Saaz, Tettnang

Stella (AUS)
Alpha Acids: 14 - 16%
Characteristics: Spicy, earthy, hints of star anise. Floral.
Substitutes: Mix of English and Noble varieties

Sterling (US)
Alpha Acids: 5 - 9%
Characteristics: Floral, spicy, slight citrus aroma.
Substitutes: Saaz

Sticklebract (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 11 - 14%
Characteristics: Piney, citrus. Harsher bittering.

Strisselspalt (France)
Alpha Acids: 3 - 5%
Characteristics: Mild Noble-like flavor, spicy, herbal.
Substitutes: Hersbrucker, Hallertau

Styrian Goldings (Slovenia)
Alpha Acids: 4.5 - 6%
Characteristics: Mild, spicy aroma.
Substitutes: Aurora, Fuggle, Williamette

Summer (AUS)
Alpha Acids: 4 - 7%
Characteristics: Apricot, orange marmalade, melon notes; undercurrent of mild earth, spice.
Substitutes: Possibly Rakau, Amarillo

Summit (US)
Alpha Acids: 17 - 19%
Characteristics: Smooth bittering with orange, tangerine, citrus character.
Substitutes: Apollo

Super Pride (AUS)
Alpha Acids: 9 - 10.5%
Characteristics: Unique, intense aroma describe as "coarse," citrusy, herbal.
Substitutes: Cluster, Galena

Super Alpha (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 10 - 12%
Characteristics: Piney, grassy, lemongrass.
Substitutes: none

Target (UK)
Alpha Acids: 8 - 13%
Characteristics: Herbal, earthy, grassy.
Substitutes: Admiral

(Hallertau) Taurus (GER)
Alpha Acids: 12 - 17%
Characteristics: Noble, aromatic, zesty.
Substitutes: Horizon, Herkules, Magnum

Tettnang (UK)
Alpha Acids: 3.5 - 5%
Characteristics: Herbal, slightly spicy, woody.
Substitutes: Saaz, Spalt, Ultra

Topaz (AUS)
Alpha Acids: 15.5 - 18%
Characteristics: Lychee fruit, tangerine, spice and resin. Touch of citrus.
Substitutes: Possibly Rakau, Stella

Tradition (GER)
Alpha Acids: 5 - 7%
Characteristics: Sweetly flowery, earthy.
Substitutes: Hallertau, Liberty

Ultra (US)
Alpha Acids: 4.5 - 5%
Characteristics: Spicy, floral, mild.
Substitutes: Saaz, Spalt, Tettnang

Vanguard (US)
Alpha Acids: 5 - 6%
Characteristics: Slightly flowery, herbal, and mild.
Substitutes: Hallertau, Spalt, Tettnang

Waimea (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 15 - 16%
Characteristics: Pine needles, citrus fruit, grapefruit, tangerine.
Substitutes: NONE

Wakatu (NZ)
Alpha Acids: 7 - 9%
Characteristics: Mildly spicy, with a floral and citrus / lime character.
Substitutes: NONE

Warrior (US) Buy Warrior Hops
Alpha Acids: 15 - 17%
Characteristics: Clean, mellow flavor; mild citrus lemon character.
Substitutes: Bravo, possibly Apollo or Magnum

Willamette (US) Buy Willamette Hops
Alpha Acids: 4 - 6%
Characteristics: Herbal, woody, earthy.
Substitutes: Fuggle, Tettnang

Zythos (US)
Alpha Acids: 10 - 12%
Characteristics: Strongly aromatic, with tangerine, lemon, grapefruit, and pine notes.
Substitutes: Cascade, Ahtanum, Sorachi Ace

Yeasts are biologically classified as fungi and are responsible for converting fermentable sugars into alcohol and other byproducts. There are hundreds of varieties and strains of yeast. There are basically two types of beer yeast: ale yeast type and lager yeast.

Top-Fermenting Yeast
Ale yeast strains are best used at temperatures ranging from 10 to 25°C, though some strains will not actively ferment below 12°C (33). Ale yeasts are generally regarded as top-fermenting yeasts since they rise to the surface during fermentation, creating a very thick, rich yeast head. That is why the term "top-fermenting" is associated with ale yeasts. Fermentation by ale yeasts at these relatively warmer temperatures produces a beer high in esters, which many regard as a distinctive character of ale beers.

Top-fermenting yeasts are used for brewing ales, porters, stouts, Altbier, Kölsch, and wheat beers.

Bottom-Fermenting Yeast
Lager yeast strains are best used at temperatures ranging from 7 to 15°C. At these temperatures, lager yeasts grow less rapidly than ale yeasts, and with less surface foam they tend to settle out to the bottom of the fermenter as fermentation nears completion. This is why they are often referred to as "bottom" yeasts. The final flavour of the beer will depend a great deal on the strain of lager yeast and the temperatures at which it was fermented.

Some of the lager styles made from bottom-fermenting yeasts are Pilsners, Dortmunders, Märzen, Bocks, and American malt liquors.

Byproducts of Yeast
Not only do malt, hops, and water have an impact on flavor, so does the synthesis of yeast, which forms byproducts during fermentation and maturation. The most notable of these byproducts are, alcohol and carbon dioxide; but in addition, a large number of other flavor compounds are produced such as:

acetaldehyde (green apple aroma)

diacetyl (taste or aroma of buttery, butterscotch)

dimethyl sulfide (DMS) (taste or aroma of sweet corn, cooked veggies)

clove (spicy character reminiscent of cloves)

fruity / estery (flavor and aroma of bananas, strawberries, apples, or other fruit)

medicinal (chemical or phenolic character)

phenolic (flavor and aroma of medicine, plastic, smoke, or cloves)

solvent (reminiscent of acetone or lacquer thinner)

sulfur (reminiscent of rotten eggs or burnt matches)



Safale S-04 Ale Yeast Buy Safale S-04 Yeast
A well-known, bottom-fermenting ale yeast strain, this is a yeast to be selected for its fast fermentation characteristics and its ability to form a compact sediment at the end of the fermentation process, helping beer clarity. For the production of a wide range of ales. This strain is especially well adapted to closed fermentation vessels.

Safale K-97
Ale Yeast K-97 is a top fermenting ale yeast with low sedimentation characteristics, and is highly recommended for the production of ales in open fermentation vessels, and for wheat/Weizen beers. During fermentation, it will produce a large, firm head.

Safbrew S-33 Ale Yeast
A general purpose, widely used ale yeast with low sedimentation properties. This strain is extremely consistent, with excellent wort attenuation and a superb flavor profile.

SafLager S-23 Lager Yeast
S-23 is a genuine German style dried lager yeast, developing the best of its lager notes under low-temperature fermentation (46-50° F). Good flocculation with excellent attenuation. The right choice for the production of a wide range of lager and pilsner beers in cylindro-conical tanks.

SafLager S-189 Lager Yeast
The most popular lager yeast strain worldwide, now available to the US brewing trade. Excellent bottom flocculation properties, clean tasting and easy to work with. For the production of a wide range of lager & pilsen beers.

SafBrew T-58 Buy SafBrew T-58 Yeast
A specialty ale yeast selected for its estery, somewhat peppery and spicy flavor. This yeast forms a solid sediment at the end of secondary fermentation, and is therefore widely used for bottle and cask conditioning.

SafLager W-34/70 Buy Saflager w-34/70
That world-famous Weihenstephan lager strain with unique technological specs and high sedimentation. Dried to perfection by the experts at Fermentis.

SafAle US-05 American Ale Buy SafAle US-05 Yeast
The most famous ale yeast strain found across American, now available as a ready-to-pitch yeast. Produces well balanced beers with low diacetyl and a very clean, crisp end palate. Sedimentation is low to medium, and final gravity is medium.


Nottingham Ale Beer Yeast Buy Nottingham Ale Yeast
If you are looking for amazing versatility from an ale yeast, look no further than Nottingham dry brewing yeast. Nottingham offers great performance with every batch, allowing brewers to cover a wide variety of beer styles with just one yeast type.

Windsor Ale Beer Yeast
Brewers wanting to create authentic English-style ales choose Danstar Windsor yeast to bring out the right characteristics from their beer. Windsor ale yeast is a true English strain that produces a beer which is estery to both palate and nose.

Munich Wheat Beer Yeast Buy Munich Yeast
Wheat beers are among the most popular beer styles in the world, and now you can brew great wheat beer styles reliably & conveniently with premium Munich Wheat Beer yeast from Danstar. Danstar Munich Wheat Beer yeast originated in Bavaria, Germany.

Diamond Lager Beer Yeast
Diamond lager yeast gives you true lager yeast performance together with the convenience & consistency of dry yeast, making Diamond the perfect choice for the full range of lager beers. The Diamond yeast strain originated in Germany.

CBC-1 Cask & Bottle Conditioned Beer Yeast
CBC-1 has been especially selected for it's refermentation properties and is recommended for Cask and Bottle Conditioning. CBC-1 referments beers up to 12-14% ABV due to its high resistance to alcohol and pressure.

BRY-97 American West Coast Beer Yeast
BRY-97 American West Coast Yeast was selected from the Siebel Institute Culture Collection and is used by a number of commercial breweries to produce different types of ale. The propagation and drying process have been specifically designed to deliver high quality beer.

Belle Saison Beer Yeast Buy Belle Saison Yeast
Belle Saison is an ale yeast of Belgian origin selected for its ability to produce great Saison-style beer. The propagation and drying processes have been specifically designed to deliver high quality beer yeast that can be used simply and reliably.